Audio segment matching is a technology that detects identical audio segments/matches among audio items or streams. It can be used for duplicate detection and removal, metadata and rights tracking within and across archives, and to detect content reuse e.g. for media analysis.
Audio phylogeny, on the other hand, is about analyzing the processing history of content, which can be useful for duplicate detection because it helps to identify original versus derived versions e.g. created by transcoding or reencoding within a set of duplicates (in order to decide which version should be kept and which can be safely removed.